Articles related to ICO, blockchain, bitcoin, Ethereum, decentralized and distributed application, blockchain app development, dapps, smart contracts, cryptocurrency.
Monday June 19th a beautiful sunny day in IT-friendly Wroclaw, tech start-ups and cryptocurrency enthusiast gather together at IT corner Tech meetup, sponsored by Empirica.
The event was planned to focus on key areas of current trends in Blockchain and Ethereum.
The event began with Mr Wojciech Rokosz, Ardeo CEO presentation. The session was dedicated to introduction to the economics of token. Explaining the new changes and updates we are and we will face in our economy with this huge entrance of virtual currencies.
The event later carried on with Mr Marek Kotewicz on introduction to Blockchain, Bitcoin and Ethereum. The session was summarizing the differences between Bitcoin and Ethereum.
The third and last part of the event was conducted with Mr Tomek Drwga, Blockchain meetup organizer, diving deeper into smart contracts and programming ( introduction to Solidity) for Ethereum.
The event ended with open discussion between the audience and speakers, and visitors were served with beverages.
The Ethereum platform was originally conceived in November 2013 with the goal of producing a more generalized blockchain platform, combining together the idea of public economic consensus via proof of work (or finally proof of stake) together with the abstraction power of a stateful Turing-complete digital machine so as to permit application developers to much more easily create applications that benefit from the decentralization and safety attributes of blockchains, and especially avoid the need to create a new blockchain for each new program. Sometime past blockchain protocols can be viewed as single purpose tools, such as pocket calculators, or at best multi-function tools like Swiss army knives, Ethereum is your smartphone of blockchains: a universal stage where, whatever you want to build, you can just construct it as an “app”, along with Ethereum consumers will be able to gain from it immediately without downloading some new special applications.
All blockchains have a notion of a history – that the set of all previous transactions and blocks and also the order in which they happened – along with the state – “currently relevant” information that determines whether or not a given transaction is legitimate and what the condition after processing a trade will be. Blockchain protocols also have an idea of a state transition rule: given what the state had been earlier, and given a particular transaction, (I) is the transaction valid, and (ii) what would the state of the transaction?
We can offer an example using Bitcoin . In Bitcoin, the state is the set of account balances (eg. address 39BaMQCphFXyYAvcoGpeKtnptLJ9v6cdFY contains 522.11790015 bitcoins, address 375zAYokrLtBVv6bY47bf2YdJH1EYsgyNR has 375 bitcoins…). The state transition function takes a transaction comprising a sender address, a destination address and a worth and asks: (I) is the trade correctly cryptographically signed by the sender, and (ii) does the sender account contain enough bitcoins to send? If either answer is unfavorable, the trade is invalid and cannot be included in a block, ie. If a block contains a transaction that is invalid under the current state, then that block is blown off from the network2 . If both answers are positive, then the transaction value is subtracted in the sender’s balance and added to that of the receiver.
In Ethereum, the layout is somewhat more complex.The state stores the contract’s code, as well as the contract’s storage, a key-value database.
A transaction in Ethereum specifies (along with other Information which will later be clarified as demanded) a destination address, a number of ether to transact plus a “data” area which theoretically can include any information (and also a sender address, although this is implicit from the touch and therefore isn’t specified explicitly). When a trade is sent to an EOA, or a not-yet-existent accounts, then it only acts as a move of ether, and serves no other function. If a transaction is delivered to a contract, however, the contract’s code runs. This code gets the ability to:
● Read the transaction data.
● Read the quantity of ether sent in the transaction
● Read and write into the contract’s own storage.
● Read environment variables (eg. timestamp, block Difficulty, previous block hashes)
Basically, one can think of a contract as being a kind of “virtual object” stored at the Ethereum country, but one which can maintain its own internal persistent memory, and which has the right to execute the very same sorts of activities and have the very same kinds of connections with other contracts which outside users may. An internal trade is a transaction created by a contract; such as a regular “outside” transaction, in addition, it has an implicit sender, a destination, a quantity of ether, and message information, and if an inner transaction is sent into a contract then that contract’s code runs. Upon exiting execution, the contract’s code gets the ability to return zero or more bytes of data, allowing internal trades to also be utilized to “inquire” other contracts for specific information. A new contract can be created either by a transaction, by placing the arrangement’s code in the transaction data rather than specifying a destination address, or from within of contract code itself via the CREATE opcode.
In simple terms, instead of enforcing one specific set of rules targeted toward one specific program, Ethereum allows users to write apps specifying whatever rules they want, upload the programs to the blockchain, and also the blockchain will translate the rules for them. On the people Ethereum blockchain, this contract mechanism has been used in many ways:
● As “smart contracts” (like issuer-backed assets and ether)
● As registries for an on-blockchain domain name system
● As accounts that represent an individual and business but multisig
● As “software libraries”, allowing code to be written and published to the blockchain once and then used by anyone else
Smart contracts have their own addresses, and so can function as owners of electronic assets in the exact same way that users may; when a contract does “own” digital resources, that implies that (I) just the contract’s code implementing can send the advantage to another party, and (ii) each party that sees and can check the blockchain is aware that the advantage is under this app’s control.
For example, one can implement a trust-free trade of asset A for asset B by having the owner of asset A send the asset into a program whose code is roughly “if I receive asset B within 24 hours, I will send asset A to the sender and send asset B to my creator, otherwise I will return asset A to my creator”. The owner of asset B can see that asset A is under the control of the contract, and so knows that if they send asset B into the contract as well, the contract will execute the trade fairly and correctly. Contracts do not have “owners”; once the original owner of asset A sends the asset into the contract, they no longer have any way to manipulate the contract to get it back, they can only wait for either the trade to succeed and for them to receive asset B or for the trade not to succeed within 24 hours at which point they will automatically get asset A back.
How can Blockchain tech work?
Before attempting to understand how blockchain ledgers operate, it might be worth having a look at traditional ledgers. For centuries, banks have utilized ledgers to keep databases of account transactions, and governments have utilized them to keep records of property ownership. There’s a central authority — that the bank or government office — that manages changes of all transactions, so that they could identify who owns what, at any given time. This allows them to check whether new transactions are valid, that the same $1 isn’t spent twice and houses aren’t offered by people who don’t own them.
Since users trust the manager of this ledger to check the trades properly, people can buy and sell from each other even when they have not met before and don’t trust each other. The middleman also controls access to information regarding the ledger. They may decide that everyone can find out who owns a construction, but only account holders can check their balance. These ledgers are centralized (there’s a middleman, reliable by all customers, who has total control over the system and mediates every trade) and black-boxed (that the functioning of the ledger and its information aren’t completely visible to its customers).
Digitization has made these ledgers faster and simpler to use, however they remain centralized and black-boxed. Blockchain delivers exactly the same record-keeping performance but without a centralized architecture. The issue is how it may be sure that a trade is legitimate when there isn’t any central authority to check it. Blockchains fix this problem by decentralizing the ledger, so that each user retains a copy of it. Everyone can request that any transaction be added into the blockchain, but transactions are only accepted if most of the users agree that it’s legitimate, e.g. that the request comes from the authorized person, that the house seller has not already sold the home, and the buyer has not already spent the cash. This checking is performed reliably and automatically on behalf of each user, creating a extremely fast and secure ledger system that is remarkably tamper-proof.
Each new transaction to be recorded is bundled together with other brand new trades to a ‘block’, which is inserted as the latest link on a lengthy ‘chain’ of historic trades. This chain forms the blockchain ledger that’s held by all users. This work is known as ‘mining’. Anybody can become a miner and compete to be the first to solve the intricate mathematical problem of creating a legitimate encrypted block of trades to add to the blockchain.
You will find numerous means of incentivizing people to do this job. Most frequently, the first miner to make a valid block and then add it to the series is rewarded with the amount of fees for its transactions. Fees are currently about $0.10 per transaction, but cubes are added regularly and contain thousands of transactions.
Miners may also receive new money that’s created and put into circulation as an inflation mechanism. Including a new block to the series means updating the ledger that’s held by all users. Users just accept a brand new block when it has been verified that all of its trades are valid. If a discrepancy is found, the block is reversed. The block is additional and will remain there as a permanent public record. No user can eliminate it. There can be no ‘imitation ledger’ since all users have their own real version to check against. These blockchains are described as ‘permission-less’, since there’s no special authority that could deny permission to participate in the checking and adding of transactions.
It’s also possible to install ‘permissioned’ blockchains, in which a limited group of actors retain the capability to access, assess and add transactions to the ledger. This enables ‘mainstream’ actors such as banks and governments to keep substantial control over their blockchains.
How Blockchain technology could change our own lives
Blockchains are a remarkably clear and decentralized way of recording lists of trades. Their best-known use is for digital currencies like Bitcoin, which declared blockchain technologies to the world using a headline-grabbing 1000 percent increase in value at the course of one month at 2013. This bubble quickly burst, but steady expansion since 2015 means Bitcoins are currently valued higher than previously. There are many different means of utilizing blockchains to make new currencies. countless such currencies are made with different features and aims.
How Blockchain-based currency transactions create fast, economical and secure public records means that they also can be utilized for several non-financial tasks, like casting votes in elections or demonstrating that a document existed at a particular moment.
Blockchains are particularly well suited to situations where it is imperative to understand ownership histories. As an example, they can help manage supply chains better, to provide certainty that diamonds are ethically sourced, that clothes aren’t made in sweatshops which champagne comes from Champagne. They could help finally resolve the problem of video and music piracy, while allowing digital media to be legitimately bought, sold, inherited and given away secondhand such as novels, video and vinyl tapes. They also present opportunities in all sorts of public services such as health and welfare obligations and, in the frontier of both blockchain development, are self-executing contracts paving the way for companies that run themselves with no human intervention. Blockchains shift some management over daily interactions with technology away from fundamental elites, redistributing it among users. In doing so, they create systems more transparent and, perhaps, much more democratic. Nevertheless, this won’t likely not result in a revolution. Indeed, the authorities and business giants investing heavily in blockchain development and research aren’t trying to make themselves obsolete, but to enhance their services.
There are additionally some wider issues to consider. For instance, blockchain’s transparency is good for matters of public record such as land registries, but what about bank accounts and other sensitive data? It is possible (albeit just occasionally and with significant effort), to recognize the people associated with transactions. This could compromise their privacy and anonymity. While some blockchains do provide full anonymity, some sensitive information simply shouldn’t be distributed in this way. Nevertheless, although blockchains aren’t the solution for every issue and even though they will not revolutionize every aspect of our own lives, they might have a substantial effect in several places and it is crucial to be ready for the challenges and opportunities they pose.
Initial Coin Offerings (ICO)
The introduction of Bitcoin in 2009 gave us resources and infrastructure to transact primitive digital tokens of value (bitcoin in the event of the Bitcoin blockchain) over the open public internet without trusted intermediaries. However, so as to create new tokens one either needed to scale and deploy a new blockchain network (likely forked from Bitcoin), or problem tokens on top of an existing blockchain network like Bitcoin (through metadata encoded into raw transactions). The former was an uphill struggle due to challenges of scaling and achieving network effects to get a new blockchain, and the latter was challenging due to the complexities of trying to encode sufficient information related to new tokens into raw Bitcoin transactions. Neither model was perfect.
But with the introduction of Ethereum in 2015 arrived the the Ethereum blockchain not only provided the infrastructure for transacting primitive digital tokens (ether in this case) but also provided the capability for easily creating and autonomously managing other secondary electronic tokens of value within the open public internet without reliable intermediaries.
Applying this concept of smart contracts, which can be effectively applications running a top a decentralized network, tokens can be generated and allocated to users, and made to be readily tradable. This process of creating tokens and distributing them to customers in exchange for a network’s primitive electronic token (cryptocurrency) is called an ICO process, and can be viewed as a novel distribution channel for assets.
Not all tokens are created equal
This post Isn’t supposed to be an introduction to the technically rich world of cryptography, blockchains and consensus mechanisms, for which there are numerous excellent entry level resources. However, the key point to bear in mind is that secondary tokens are not like primitive tokens (cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and ether) that are inherent to the “structural integrity” of a blockchain network.
Open peer-to-peer worth transfer networks, for example Bitcoin or Ethereum, need to endure complex attack vectors within an open hostile environment – where all parties (hosting or accessing the community) are assumed to be self interested and focused on optimizing their own value. In this scenario the key question is how do all parties be incentivized to work for the greater good of securing the community while fulfilling their self-interest. This leads us into the real innovation of this blockchain network, the primitive token (or cryptocurrency).
In addition to being the subject of transaction between parties On the network (the users), the crude token is also used to incentive key parties competing to reach consensus (the miners) as quickly as possible on the state of this blockchain ledger (i.e. who owns what primitive token). The reward for securing the network and reaching consensus is either new supply of crude tokens or transaction fees. In this model, trust is made from mistrust through expending energy in the mining process, which makes the violation of the “sanctity of the blockchain ledger” costly and economically unfavorable to the option of procuring the system and being rewarded in the native store of value for the effort of doing this . It is a self-contained system that is simple and beautiful in its implementation, and requires no more controls and rules than are necessary.
Here you can see the core purpose and the unique nature of a cryptocurrency, and why it is fundamental to a blockchain network: cryptocurrency is the atomic element where the open public blockchain network is forged. On the other hand a secondary token, that is made in addition to a blockchain network, is merely a representation of some “property rights” that may (or may not) be external to the blockchain e.g. “real world assets” or access to products/services.
Inherent blockchain and its cryptocurrency to create and issue (through an ICO procedure) secondary tokens for any purpose, but this only uses the open public blockchain as an independent “custody or notarization” data layer.
ICO and token issuance
Among the most obvious and natural use cases for ICO based Secondary token issuances is to represent some form of conventional security e.g. equity, debt, participation in profit sharing, etc.. In addition to issuance, allocation and transferability being programmed into an immutable smart arrangement, one can also predefine a set of events like cash flow rules which could be triggered either at set times or by particular external events. There are a number of reasons why a public blockchain infrastructure is logical for the issuance and management of financial securities, which are mostly associated with custody regulations around how client money and asset are managed through their life cycle.
However, since the “offer and sale” of securities is in and Of itself highly controlled, many models have been devised by startups to allow the issuance of tokens through an ICO distribution version whilst not falling afoul of securities regulations. As well as the question around whether a token is a security or not there are also lots of other unanswered questions related to tax of capital gains and KYC/AML rules. These are a few of the regulatory and statutory financial considerations which are currently an ongoing area of development and appraisal.
Recent SEC investigative report, these aspects will be the most crucial on how ICO And the issued tokens are classified by regulators globally.
An ICO is a form of financing commonly known as ‘token sales’ That is particularly favourable for early-stage companies. These forthcoming business concepts are valued via artificially created currencies that, theoretically, can be quantified in terms of riches in the long run — when the thought starts making money. There’s not anything more than a guarantee that the business in question has a renewable future beforehand — no feasibility studies are undertaken. Nevertheless, investors are jumping on this bandwagon in great amounts, providing this tendency increasing momentum.
Gnosis, the decentralized prediction marketplace platform, increased Over $12.5 million at a Dutch token offering in just 15 minutes. Investors rushed to obtain Gnosis tokens (worth 250,000 Ether), which subsequently had the project valued at a whopping $300 million almost immediately. Money has been set down, not for the final product, but for a forecast, which was sufficient to kick-start the plan.
It has amassed over $1.3 billion to date this season for tech start-ups. In fact, in a number of the offerings, demand surpassed the amount of tokens available.
ICOs Happen in an intangible network, where cash is created, exchanged, and disposed of in the cloud. Cryptocurrencies are not anything more than a fixed variety of entries in a database which exist on a peer-to-peer digital money system, which is decentralized. These transactional entries are made and saved in blockchain engineering, with encryption methods being used to restrict the production of financial transfers and units. They are transactions that are initiated, accepted, confirmed, and shared by a community of peers at the ‘crypto-world.’
Start-ups interested in an ICO may create their own Cryptocurrency utilizing protocols such as Ethereum, Counterparty, or Openledger, and establish a value dependent on the amount of money a job is required to deliver to achieve the roadmap outlined in its whitepaper. This post is like a mini pattern that summarizes the project (what it’s about, what its objectives are, its conclusion milestones, the amount of funds required, the duration of the campaign, and the kind of money okay), providing a prospectus into the market to create interest. The secret is getting the people to like and believe in the thought, even though nothing yet exists in real form to show its feasibility or potential prospects. People worldwide are then able to buy the newly made tokens in exchange for established cryptocurrencies, such as Ether (ETH) or Bitcoins (BTC).
Interested investors may open their accounts on electronic currency exchange platforms and begin trading BTC and ETH for a variety of tokens for new projects. ICOs normally persist for a week or so, during which the price of the token fluctuates according to the arrangement set up from the issuers. For instance, the price can remain static to achieve a specific goal or financing goal for your undertaking. However, issuers might want to match the static provide with dynamic pricing, where the price of tokens increases in tandem with the amount of financing received. A third model might have a static cost set with a dynamic supply — for instance, where the worth of ETH 1 is set upon the inception of a token. This will continue until the startup reaches its funding target.
ICOs can involve multiple rounds of fundraising, together with the this incentives investors to place their money in as early as possible to reap the maximum benefit.
Tokens do not give investors any ownership rights or asset claims. Rather, they behave as bearer instruments, providing users rights about the particular project itself, not to the company that’s launching the project. While owning the tokens doesn’t entitle their holders to vote on the direction of this job, these rights are embedded within the ICO itself, in which engaging investors give input throughout the project’s lifespan. Users may be paid for a right prediction or to receive the content they contribute through a proposal. Investors get involved in these types of actions in anticipation that the value of tokens belonging to successful projects will grow drastically, generating a greater yield on their investments.
There’s no doubt that ICOs have become highly popular, not Just with fintech start-ups, but with individuals from all walks of life. They look ideal for anybody who would like to raise capital quickly for an idea. There are a variety of motives for this. Mainly, it is the speed at which money could be raised to get a project that exists solely as a vision — that in contrast to VC financing, where shareholders will run greater examination on the direction dynamics, market size, potential dangers etc.. The simple fact that this is largely an unregulated field also make ICOs attractive in terms of there being few or no duties and costs for compliance. For example, ICOs provide their issuers with numerous rounds of fundraising, with few (if any) intermediaries. These token earnings are likewise not subject to direct taxation, with shareholders being liable to cover only capital gains taxation, depending upon the jurisdiction. What makes this process much more appealing is the ease with which cryptocurrency tokens can be made, used in trades, and traded thanks to technological growth. Issuers might no longer need to mine with complicated codes to use this kind of funding.
But entrepreneurs are not the only winners. Investors also Enjoy taking part in ICOs for a variety of factors. This includes the opportunity to create enormous profits, which may be seen by the huge yields in 2016 from Monero and NEM start-ups. ICOs also offer greater liquidity, which isn’t readily accessible VC funding where exit options may be minimal. Here, profits could be pulled out easily by converting cryptocurrencies into Bitcoins or Ether, and then into fiat money. Platforms such as Coinbase, Kraken, Poloniex, and Yunbi allow investors to market their electronic riches and obtain quick returns on investments as costs vary drastically through the day.
$25 million using its ICO. While the company had already raised $20 million from traditional VCs, additionally, it raised capital through tokens for its product Omise Go — a decentralized payment system that allows users to share money without having to deal with maintaining a bank account and incurring support or cross-border charges. Omise Go’s initial services will go live from Q4 of 2017, where nominal holders can earn money by being a part of the network.
The ICO marketplace has grown at an exponential rate over the Past couple of months. The risk that this might be another bubble, like the dotcom Crash in 2000, has generated unease. Regulators particularly believe that such a highly open market is more likely to extreme volatility. It’s a dynamic place, where numerous tokens could be made and filtered out every day. Too much need by investors (due to speculation) can lead to tragedy. The rapid development Of ICOs as a source of financing is exciting but the sustainability of ICOs and Cryptocurrencies as a whole has yet to be proven.
Why is Ethereum bringing so many new startup businesses? Is Ethereum Becoming the New Platform for Startups?
The recent rise in value of Ethereum has flipped it to more than a billion dollar capitalization and next just to Bitcoin. Its worth is more than four occasions the worth of the third place crypto-currency, XRP. .
Ethereum was produced by Vitalik Buterin, a college dropout who although enthusiased from the potential for Bitcoin, felt that there may be a much better stage. Buterin, that has been compared to Steve Jobs, feels that his invention gives a strong platform for others to develop on and produce strong applications.
Buterin recently released his first production-ready version of Ethereum but even before this release, there had been a rush of startups to utilize the open platform and create blockchain based companies for new services and products, or to encouraging their existing companies.
“We’ve seen Microsoft and IBM doing projects on Ethereum. There’s a lot of coders. It’s fascinating to see something you were in on in the early phases growing and bearing fruit,” Anthony Di Iorio, one of Ethereum’s founders and a Chief Digital Officer at the Toronto Stock Exchange, said in an interview.
In 2015, there was a rush of venture capital into Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. This season, the potential and impact for Ethereum is seeing venture cash coming in especially targeted to Ethereum based startups.
Two leading venture capital companies, Boost VC, along with Blockchain Capital, are both taking a closer look at Ethereum companies.
Boost VC is obviously signaling their interest in Ethereum companies by stressing the cohesiveness of the developers and the powerful leadership exhibited by Buterin. Brock Pierce, founder of Blockchain Capital indicates that his firm is currently looking past Bitcoin for startups this year, stating, “you are likely to see that the usage of different blockchains beyond Bitcoin, such as these permissioned ledgers that a whole lot of financial institutions are interested in, but also even other people blockchains like Ethereum.”
One startup that has many people excited is Augur, that is constructing a prediction modeling system that is made on Ethereum.
Venture money is also moving towards Ethereum mining pools such as BTCS. Charles Allen, CEO of bitcoin mining outfit BTCS, noted that his firm recently constructed custom Ethereum mining rigs as part of a pilot program due to the escalating cost of ether.
Among the top crowdfunding sites for Blockchain related ventures is BnktotheFuture, which has helped to fund companies such as Factom and Bitpay, recently raised money for an Ether mining finance.
The billion dollar capitalization of Ethereum has clearly increased its profile and possibility of its currency, Ether as a powerful form of currency and investment.
We are guaranteed to see different startups and companies that will recognize this fact and provide investing abilities to exploit the possibility of Ether as a currency.
The growth and interest in Ethereum is making it clear that the conversation about cryptocurrencies can no more be limited to Bitcoin. As more startups and cash continue to chase the potential of Ethereum it is imperative that anybody following the electronic currency space needs to keep up to date to what is going on with Ethereum.
Ethereum is a open-source, public, blockchain-established distributed computing platform comprising intelligent contract (scripting) functionality. Ethereum additionally supplies a cryptocurrency token known as “ether”, which is transferred between accounts and utilized to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. “Gas”, an internal trade pricing mechanism, is utilized to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.
Ethereum has become a top target for hackers.
The promising cryptocurrency that’s also a stage for decentralized software has dropped in value during the last six months (although it also had a serious drop in price in the past couple of months). But hacker attacks and theft of ether are very commonplace, and the last one is one of the worst so far.
An unknown hacker or a bunch of hackers exploited a vulnerability in the manner by that Parity, an Ethereum wallet, executed multi-sig wallets, stealing some 153,000 value of ether, which was valued around $32 million in the time of theft.
According to a security alert on the Parity blog dated July 19, the vulnerability was fixed, but “any user with resources in a multi-sig pocket made in Parity Wallet prior to 19/07/17 23:14:56 CEST,” was exposed to ether theft.
The thieving has indeed happened and it could be seen on Ethereum’s blockchain here. And additional funds were stolen from other companies such as Edgeless Casino and Aeternity.
A multi-sig wallet is a wallet which needs more than one touch for a task to be performed on its own contents. Users who had regular wallets on Parity were not in danger (incidentally, the author of this text has until recently held some ether at a Parity wallet, but maybe not a multi-sig one).
What makes this theft particularly troublesome is that Parity is among the most trusted pockets at the company. The business was founded by Gavin Wood, who’s also a co-founder of Ethereum and has composed the first implementation of Ethereum back in 2014. What’s more, it seems that no quantity of caution on the consumers’ side could have prevented the theft.
Those transactions can be viewed here. The group has promised to return the capital to their owners once the vulnerability is fixed.
His isn’t even the first ether theft this week. On Tuesday, a first coin offering (ICO) of an Ethereum-based startup called CoinDash went south as hackers managed to change the wallet speech on the project’s webpage, siphoning away more than $10 million value of ether.
To repair the harm, Ethereum’s management decided to create a tough fork in the software, undoing the theft but also splitting Ethereum to two separate cryptocoins: Ethereum and (today far less precious) Ethereum Classic.
Ethereum is a system and programming language which makes it possible for any developer to construct and release next-generation decentralized software. In summary: Ethereum is your internet, with no web servers. Ethereum may be used to codify, decentralize, protected and exchange just about anything: voting, domains, financial markets, crowdfunding, business governance, contracts and arrangements of most form, intellectual property, as well as wise property as a result of hardware integration.
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